High sharing/low automation leads to ~20% energy savings compared to ~20% energy increase for low sharing/high automation scenarios

A comprehensive study of the Chicago metropolitan area indicates a 50% penetration of personally-owned highly-automated vehicles may increase vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) by up to 25%, increasing highway congestion and reducing system efficiency. However, wide adoption of automated, shared ride-hailing in this highly automated future could mitigate these negative impacts, reducing VMT by 18%, reducing congestion, and improving system efficiency by 44% (in terms of productive miles of travel per unit of energy).

For additional information, please visit SMART Mobility Capstone Report (link)